Citrine — is nothing else than transparent Quartz with a natural, lemon-yellow color, which is changing its color to the orange-brown, by heating, known also as “Occidental Topaz” or “Spanish Topaz.” It is a rare variety of Quartz, as well as the Rose Quartz.
This gemstone has often mistaken for Topaz, however, it can be easily distinguished from Topaz, due to the fact that the Citrine is much softer, than Topaz; its hardness is 7/10, according to the Mohs Scale of hardness, whence its other name “false Topaz.”
The history of Citrine is very complicated, due to the fact, that this yellow stone could be mistaken for any other yellow stone by the ancient authors. In those times, the clear classification of precious and semi precious stones simply didn’t exist.
Thus, for instance, Hodder Michael Wesropp in his book “A Manual of Precious Stones and Antique Gems,” written in 1874, stated that “there were only two yellow stones, that came to us from the ancient times, and they were — the pale Citrine and yellow Quartz,” which are considered as the same stones nowadays, whereas, later, he stated, that the “chrysolithus,” described by Pliny, was the yellow Quartz, for sure.”
We only know authentically, that Citrine was used sometimes by our ancestors, to produce the intaglios. The authors of XIX century also stated, that the Citrine, along with other yellow stones has not been valuable for the Romans, due to the fact, that the Romans considered themselves the children of Mars, thus, they have preferred the red color, whereas, the Greeks, in turn, respected Citrine and other yellow stones.
Thus, any of the Topazes or yellow Sapphires, that have been described by Pliny the Elder and Theophrastus, most likely were nothing else than the Citrine.
Citrine, being a typical yellow gemstone is endowed with numerous of the virtues and superstitions, which are connected with the power of the Sun. Thus, the Citrine is suitable for the active people, who are full of energy. Citrine is designed to support health of an active person and capable to develop such virtues as overconfidence, optimism and stress tolerance. Furthermore, Citrine is an alternative Birthstone for November.
The principal mines of Citrine are located in Brazil and Uruguay (where Citrine is mined along with Amethyst). Citrine is also mined in Scotland, where Loch Avon and Goatfell are the main locations. So-called “Spanish Topaz” is mined in the Sierra Morena, Spain. These specimens of Citrine possess saturated yellow color. Citrine is also mined in France, in the spot called Bourg d’Oisans.
There are also the deposits of Citrine in the United States, Russia, Kazakhstan and Madagascar.